Minerals and Power Resources

Minerals and Power Resources

• Minerals are naturally occurring substances that have a definite chemical composition.
• Minerals are formed in different types of geological environments, under varying conditions.
• Minerals can be identified on the basis of their physical properties such as colour, density,
hardness and chemical property such as solubility.
• Types of Minerals:
(i) On the basis of composition, minerals are classified into metallic and non-metallic types.
(ii) Metallic, minerals contain metals in raw form.
(iii) Metals are hard substances that conduct heat and electricity and have lustre or shine. For example, iron ore and bauxite.
(iv) Metallic minerals are of two types: (a) Ferrous and (b) Non-ferrous.
(v) Ferrous minerals contain iron ore, manganese and chromites.
(vi) Non-ferrous minerals do not contain iron but may contain some other metals like gold, silver, copper or lead.
(vii) Non-metallic minerals do not contain metals. For example, limestone, mica, gypsum, coal and petroleum.
(viii) Mining, drilling and quarrying are the three extraction methods of minerals.
(ix) Mining is the process of taking out minerals from rocks buried under the earth’s surface.
(x) The process of mining includes two methods: (a) Open cast mining, (b) Shaft mining
(xi) Deep wells are bored to take minerals out and this process is called drilling.
(xii) In the process of quarrying, minerals that lie near the surface are simply dug out.
• Distribution of Minerals:
(i) Minerals are found in igneous rock, metamorphic rocks and sedimentary rocks.
(ii) Iron ore, nickel, copper minerals are found in igneous and metamorphic rocks.
(iii) Limestone is found in sedimentary rocks.
• Uses of Minerals:
(i) Some minerals which are usually hard are used as gems for making jewellery.
(ii) Copper is used in almost everything from coins to pipes.
(iii) Silicon is used in almost everything from coins to pipes.
(iv) Silicon is used in the computer industry which is obtained from quartz.
(v) Aluminium is used in automobile, airplanes, bottling industry, building and in kitchen cookware.

• Conservation of Minerals:
(i) Minerals are the non-renewable resources.
(ii) It is necessary to reduce wastage in process of mining.
(iii) Recycling of metals is the way to conserve mineral resources.

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