In The Earliest Cities

In The Earliest Cities

• Man’s lifestyle changed significantly after he learnt the art of using metals.
• Copper was the first metal to be used by man. It was followed by bronze which was made by mixing tin and copper.
• The earliest cities in the Indian subcontinent emerged around 4,700 years in the region drained by Indus and its tributaries in the North-West.
• The Story of Harappa:
(i) British discovered a mound while building Railways.
(ii) Archaeologists were informed.
(iii) Harappa was the first to be discovered, it became Harappa Civilisation.
• Architectural Features:
(i) Harappan cities were well-planned.
(ii) All houses were build of burnt bricks and were of good quality.
(iii) The most imposing construction of Indus valley was the Great Bath at Mohenjodaro.
(iv) The Harappan settlements had small citadels. It was in citadels that structures were built for special public puroposes.
(v) The largest building excavated at Harappa was the Great Granary.
(vi) The most striking feature of Harappa was the well-planned drainage system.
• Life of the Harappa People:
(i) The Harappan people used common food items like wheat and barley. Animal bones found at Harappa include sheep, goat, pig, etc.
(ii) Pots of fine clay were made.
(iii) Many kilns for baking bricks have been discovered.
(iv) Of the various articles, seals were the most puzzling.
(v) Necklaces, armlets, finger rings and bangles were worn both by men and women. Both men and women seemed to be fond of ornaments.

• Trade:
(i) Trading thrived in Harappa.
(ii) It suggests that long-distance trade existed.
(iii) Goods coming from outside, include copper from Rajasthan, gold from Karnataka and precious stones from Iran and Afghanistan.
(iv) Seals of Mesopotamia have been found in Indus.
(v) Seals of Indus Valley have been found in Mesopotamia.
• Harappan Cities in Gujarat:
(i) Two famous Harappan cities of Gujarat were Dholavira and Lothal.
(ii) Dholavira was full of traces of fresh water and fertile soil.
(iii) Lothal was an important centre for making objects out of stone, shell and metal.
• Decline of the Indus Valley Civilisation:
(i) It lasted from 2500 BC to 1500 BC.
(ii) Perhaps Indus Valley Civilisation was destroyed by earth quakes, floods or change in the course of the Indus.
(iii) Some historians sat that the invasion of Aryans led to the decline of Harappan civilization.

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